Don't click or your IP will be banned


Hittin' The Web with the Allman Brothers Band Forum
You are not logged in

< Last Thread   Next Thread ><<  1    2  >>Ascending sortDescending sorting  
Author: Subject: Biofuels More Harmful Than Fossil Fuels, Studies Find

Maximum Peach





Posts: 8375
(8376 all sites)
Registered: 3/22/2006
Status: Offline

  posted on 3/2/2010 at 09:47 PM
Looks like the billions being funneled into biofuels, and all the hype about this as a future option, are proving to be another unsustainable fantasy. Besides the problem of higher carbon emmission when everything is factored in, the reduction in crops grown for food production will negatively affect millions....

quote:
Green fuels cause more harm than fossil fuels, according to report

Using fossil fuel in vehicles is better for the environment than so-called green fuels made from crops, according to a government study seen by The Times.

The findings show that the Department for Transport’s target for raising the level of biofuel in all fuel sold in Britain will result in millions of acres of forest being logged or burnt down and converted to plantations. The study, likely to force a review of the target, concludes that some of the most commonly-used biofuel crops fail to meet the minimum sustainability standard set by the European Commission.

Under the standard, each litre of biofuel should reduce emissions by at least 35 per cent compared with burning a litre of fossil fuel. Yet the study shows that palm oil increases emissions by 31 per cent because of the carbon released when forest and grassland is turned into plantations. Rape seed and soy also fail to meet the standard.

The Renewable Transport Fuels Obligation this year requires 3¼ per cent of all fuel sold to come from crops. The proportion is due to increase each year and by 2020 is required to be 13 per cent. The DfT commissioned E4tech, a consultancy, to investigate the overall impact of its biofuel target on forests and other undeveloped land.

The EC has conducted its own research, but is refusing to publish the results. A leaked internal memo from the EC’s agriculture directorate reveals its concern that Europe’s entire biofuels industry, which receives almost £3 billion a year in subsidies, would be jeopardised if indirect changes in land use were included in sustainability standards. A senior official added to the memo in handwriting: “An unguided use of ILUC [indirect land use change] would kill biofuels in the EU.”

The EC hopes to protect its biofuel target by issuing revised standards that would give palm plantations the same status as natural forests. Officials appear to have accepted arguments put forward by the palm oil industry that palms are just another type of tree.

A draft of the new rules, obtained by The Times, states that palm oil should be declared sustainable if it comes from a “continuously forested area”, which it defines as areas where trees can reach at least heights of 5m, making up crown cover of more than 30 per cent. “This means, for example, that a change from forest to oil palm plantation would not per se constitute a breach of the criterion,” it adds.

Clearing rainforest for biofuel plantations releases carbon stored in trees and soil. It takes up to 840 years for a palm oil plantation to soak up the carbon emitted when the rainforest it replaced was burnt. The expansion of the palm oil industry in Indonesia has turned it into the third-largest CO2 emitter, after China and the US. Indonesia loses an area of forest the size of Wales every year and the orang-utan is on the brink of extinction in Sumatra.

Last year, 127 million litres of palm oil was added to diesel sold to motorists in Britain, including 64 million litres from Malaysia and 27 million litres from Indonesia. Kenneth Richter, biofuels campaigner for Friends of the Earth, said: “The billions of subsidy for biofuels would be better spent on greener cars and improved public transport.”

http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/environment/article7044708.ece





quote:
New Biofuels report shows how Europe is driving hunger

Up to 100 million more people could go hungry if the UK and Europe commit to increases in biofuels consumption in order to meet new European Union legislation, says ActionAid.

The EU wants at least 10 per cent of transport fuels to come from renewable sources within the next 10 years. This target will be met in the main by industrial biofuels – fuels made on an industrial scale from agricultural crops, including important staple foods. The majority are likely to come from developing countries.

In a major new report ‘Meals per gallon: the impact of industrial biofuels on people and global hunger’ ActionAid estimates that as a result of the legislation, the amount of biofuels in Europe’s petrol and diesel will increase nearly fourfold. It says this will have a disastrous impact on the world’s poor as food prices rise.

Report author Tim Rice said: “Biofuels are driving a global human tragedy. Local food prices have already risen massively. As biofuel production gains pace, this can only accelerate.

“Poor people can spend as much as 80 per cent of their income on food. Even small increases in the price of staples such as maize and wheat mean that many more will become increasingly desperate.”

Driving hunger

ActionAid also calculates that whilst Europe’s increased use of biofuels could drive the numbers of chronically hungry people up by 100 million, the worldwide rush could increase that number to 600 million.

Over a billion people currently go hungry each day and it is estimated that for every one per cent rise in the price of food, 16 million more people fall into hunger.

ActionAid also says that biofuels are not even an answer to climate change. “Most biofuels are worse than the fossil fuels they are supposed to replace,” said Tim Rice.

The majority of biofuels need nitrogen fertiliser, releasing nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas 300 times more damaging than carbon dioxide. Scientists believe that the extent of nitrous oxide emissions has been seriously underestimated.

Large scale biofuel plantations also increase carbon dioxide emissions, either directly by cutting down forests or ploughing up other carbon rich habitats, or indirectly by forcing farmers to move into these areas.

Broken promises

ActionAid has additionally found that this displacement of farming families is gathering speed as multinationals acquire land for biofuels with little or no consultation or compensation. Poor people suffer broken promises about wages and job opportunities, and face food scarcity.

Across developing countries as a whole, EU companies have already acquired or are in negotiations for at least five million hectares – well over twice the size of Wales. And to meet the 2020 EU target solely from biofuels, the total land area required to grow industrial biofuels in poor countries could reach 17.5 million hectares.

“ActionAid is relaying an alarm call from people on the ground,” said Tim Rice.

“In Mozambique ActionAid met Matilde Ngoene who had her farm grabbed by a biofuel company – she now has no job nor has she received any compensation.

“Raju Sona in India was persuaded to grow biofuels to earn money but his plot was too small. There was no market and he lost his ability to feed his family.

“Western consumption of biofuels is driving people like these into hunger.”

To meet EU deadlines, member states are writing national action plans setting out their renewables strategies for the next 10 years. ActionAid is calling on the UK and others to ensure they do not commit to any further increase in industrial biofuels.

The charity also says that transport and energy consumption should be reduced, targets and financial incentives for industrial biofuels ended and more support given to small-scale sustainable biofuels in the EU and elsewhere.

http://www.actionaid.org.uk/102322/news.html


 

____________________
Obamacare: To insure the uninsured, we first make the insured
uninsured and then make them pay more to be insured again,
so the original uninsured can be insured for free.

 
Replies:

Extreme Peach



Karma:
Posts: 1382
(1382 all sites)
Registered: 3/27/2004
Status: Offline

  posted on 3/2/2010 at 10:08 PM

I agree that biofuels don't appear to be a sustainable greener option on a large scale, and money and research in terms of public policy shifts are best spent elsewhere. However, in an another world where the single family subsistence farm still exists, it would be a nice side effort for individuals to run their vehicles via part of their own crop.....you know, live off the land, use only what you need and all of that...

I feel like I saw a show once where some guy had succeeded in using kitchen grease to fuel his vehicle in short spurts to town, etc. Maybe I'm imagining that.....

 

Banned


Karma:
Posts: -4
(1478 all sites)
Registered: 3/3/2011
Status: Offline

  posted on 3/2/2010 at 10:51 PM



[Edited on 3/16/2010 by MyInnerEyeMike]

 

____________________
http://www.youtube.com/user/MyInnerEyeMike

http://www.redbubble.com/people/MyInnereyeMike


"What does pontificate mean again?" - WannabeDerek


 

World Class Peach



Karma:
Posts: 5087
(5086 all sites)
Registered: 4/18/2002
Status: Offline

  posted on 3/2/2010 at 10:53 PM
Several colleges around Georgia use Bio-diesel made with used cooking oil from the kitchens.
A multi-use product makes more sense to me that just using corn to make ethanol.

 

____________________
All photos posted of family, friends, and places, including those of historic ABB value, by this poster are copyrighted by the poster, or posted by permission of the copywriter.
None of those photos may be reproduced for commercial gain.

 

Banned


Karma:
Posts: -4
(1478 all sites)
Registered: 3/3/2011
Status: Offline

  posted on 3/2/2010 at 11:02 PM


[Edited on 3/16/2010 by MyInnerEyeMike]

 

____________________
http://www.youtube.com/user/MyInnerEyeMike

http://www.redbubble.com/people/MyInnereyeMike


"What does pontificate mean again?" - WannabeDerek


 

Zen Peach



Karma:
Posts: 19435
(19449 all sites)
Registered: 6/9/2002
Status: Offline

  posted on 3/2/2010 at 11:08 PM
Cincinnati's bus system has used 75% biodiesel for years and it works just fine.


quote:
http://www.environmentalleader.com/2007/01/09/cincinnati-uses-18-mill ion-gallons-of-biodiesel-in-2006/

Metro bus service in Cincinnati estimates that the use of biodiesel saved almost $450,000 in 2006. The transit system intends to continue its use of biodiesel in 2007.

About half of Metro’s total fuel was biodiesel made locally from Ohio soybeans. In all, Metro used almost 1.8 million gallons of biodiesel, up a third over its original projection of 1.3 million gallons. Metro’s 390 buses use about 3.6 million gallons of fuel total per year.

During warm weather months, Metro fueled all buses with a blend of up to 75 percent biodiesel/25 percent regular diesel and switched back to a more conservative 20 percent biodiesel blend in colder months when the fuel can gel.




But, METRO is now moving torwards hybrid technology;

quote:
http://www.go-metro.com/hybrid.html


Cincinnati is known for its hills. Historically, diesel engines have been the only way to propel 13-ton Metro buses filled with passengers up those hills. Today, new diesel-electric hybrid buses offer an environmentally responsible alternative to diesel power.

Hybrid-electric vehicles are powered both by an electric motor and a diesel engine. Today’s hybrid buses combine the latest technological advances with the efficiency and reduced emissions of modern clean-diesel technology to produce dramatic reductions in both emissions and fuel consumption.

Vehicles use the most fuel and generate the most pollution when they accelerate. Hybrids use less fuel and emit less exhaust because they use electric power for acceleration. Electricity is generated by the engine and by the braking action of the bus as it slows down or stops, which is called regenerative braking. The result: smooth acceleration with reduced emissions.

Most hybrid buses produce about 95% less soot than diesel buses.

On April 21, 2009, Metro introduced the first six hybrid diesel-electric buses into its 388-bus fleet in Cincinnati. More are on the way.

While a hybrid bus costs about $170,000 more than a conventional diesel bus, each hybrid will significantly reduce emissions and yield an annual savings of 3,000 gallons of diesel fuel compared to diesel buses.


 

____________________

 

Maximum Peach



Karma:
Posts: 8375
(8376 all sites)
Registered: 3/22/2006
Status: Offline

  posted on 3/2/2010 at 11:27 PM
Damn, those are some awesome looking busses Otie!

 

____________________
Obamacare: To insure the uninsured, we first make the insured

uninsured and then make them pay more to be insured again,

so the original uninsured can be insured for free.

 

Extreme Peach



Karma:
Posts: 1725
(1746 all sites)
Registered: 8/31/2002
Status: Offline

  posted on 3/2/2010 at 11:32 PM
that bus looks cool as hell, man!

would be perfect for The Derek and Susan Trucks Band (probably pretty expensive)

 

____________________
-- This sky where we live is no place to lose your wings, so love, love, love.

 

Banned


Karma:
Posts: -4
(1478 all sites)
Registered: 3/3/2011
Status: Offline

  posted on 3/2/2010 at 11:37 PM


[Edited on 3/16/2010 by MyInnerEyeMike]

 

____________________
http://www.youtube.com/user/MyInnerEyeMike

http://www.redbubble.com/people/MyInnereyeMike


"What does pontificate mean again?" - WannabeDerek


 

Zen Peach



Karma:
Posts: 27533
(27822 all sites)
Registered: 2/18/2006
Status: Offline

  posted on 3/2/2010 at 11:39 PM
I saw that show about the production of algae to use as fuel and it sounded very promisiing. I especially liked the way they were growing the stuff vertically. I think iti's definitely worth pursuing.

 

____________________
Sometimes we can't choose the music life gives us - but we damn sure can choose how we dance!


 

Banned


Karma:
Posts: -4
(1478 all sites)
Registered: 3/3/2011
Status: Offline

  posted on 3/2/2010 at 11:47 PM



[Edited on 3/16/2010 by MyInnerEyeMike]

 

____________________
http://www.youtube.com/user/MyInnerEyeMike

http://www.redbubble.com/people/MyInnereyeMike


"What does pontificate mean again?" - WannabeDerek


 

Extreme Peach



Karma:
Posts: 1725
(1746 all sites)
Registered: 8/31/2002
Status: Offline

  posted on 3/2/2010 at 11:49 PM
i have absolutely no data or whatever, but there's quite a few people just usin' it (bio-diesel) in their vehicles (there's a simple conversion, filter, etc.) .... I know a friend of mine does.

http://www.nearbio.com/

stations all over the country to buy it - oh, and for the most part, people that I know that have made their own have quit, due to the nasty (i think it's glycerine?) by-product of making it.

 

____________________
-- This sky where we live is no place to lose your wings, so love, love, love.

 

Zen Peach



Karma:
Posts: 67007
(67524 all sites)
Registered: 10/27/2002
Status: Offline

  posted on 3/3/2010 at 12:20 AM
Nitrous oxide as a by-product???

Start bottling emissions and sell balloons full at Phish shows.

Win/win situation.

 

____________________
Hittin' The Web::Hugh Duty Memorial Giveaway has begun!

RIP Hugh Duty

 

Maximum Peach



Karma:
Posts: 8375
(8376 all sites)
Registered: 3/22/2006
Status: Offline

  posted on 3/3/2010 at 12:33 AM
quote:
It's hard to imagine what lies in the future for fuel.
Seems to me that ultimately it will have to be solar or nuclear in some fashion. Bio-sources use far too much resources (land use in competition with food needs, and a huge water requirement to produce the fuel). Wind might be promising, but is highly mechanical, heavily weather dependent, and would require hundreds of thousands of towers to fulfill our needs (goodbye birds). Geothermal or tidal proposals seem to be location dependent. Controlled fusion would be the ultimate, but we're quite a ways away from that goal.

 

____________________
Obamacare: To insure the uninsured, we first make the insured

uninsured and then make them pay more to be insured again,

so the original uninsured can be insured for free.

 

Zen Peach



Karma:
Posts: 27533
(27822 all sites)
Registered: 2/18/2006
Status: Offline

  posted on 3/3/2010 at 12:42 AM
quote:
quote:
I saw that show about the production of algae to use as fuel and it sounded very promisiing. I especially liked the way they were growing the stuff vertically. I think iti's definitely worth pursuing.


That might have been a different show. The product they were showing was produced in glass flasks in a lab. Algae doesn't grow vertical. It looks like the stuff that you see on the surface of a pond. I do know that algae is very nutritious, and the guy doing the demonstration was showing the finished product, which was combustible oil, and he was eating it off his finger!! He said it tasted like olive oil, but much more nutritious.

It's hard to imagine what lies in the future for fuel. What we don't use for fuel, we can use as a compliment to our salad!!



What I saw in the show was what you're describing only they had stacks of algae containers from floor to ceiling where it was all growing.....when it was harvested, the containers were ready for the next crop and the way it was being done dreated a maximum amount of growing area for the space at hand.

I don't don't if I could eat algae in salad....I don't even do bean sprouts. ;-)

 

____________________
Sometimes we can't choose the music life gives us - but we damn sure can choose how we dance!


 

Zen Peach



Karma:
Posts: 27533
(27822 all sites)
Registered: 2/18/2006
Status: Offline

  posted on 3/3/2010 at 12:45 AM
This is like what I saw:

http://www.truveo.com/search?query=algae%20bio%20fuel%20grown&flv=1#alg ae%20bio%20fuel%20grown%20

 

____________________
Sometimes we can't choose the music life gives us - but we damn sure can choose how we dance!


 

Zen Peach



Karma:
Posts: 27533
(27822 all sites)
Registered: 2/18/2006
Status: Offline

  posted on 3/3/2010 at 12:46 AM
Check out the ones labeled Vertigrow.

 

____________________
Sometimes we can't choose the music life gives us - but we damn sure can choose how we dance!


 

True Peach



Karma:
Posts: 11157
(11157 all sites)
Registered: 9/17/2007
Status: Offline

  posted on 3/3/2010 at 12:50 AM
Wonder what happened to T. Boone Pickens natural gas solution he was pushing?
 

Banned


Karma:
Posts: -4
(1478 all sites)
Registered: 3/3/2011
Status: Offline

  posted on 3/3/2010 at 12:54 AM


[Edited on 3/16/2010 by MyInnerEyeMike]

 

____________________
http://www.youtube.com/user/MyInnerEyeMike

http://www.redbubble.com/people/MyInnereyeMike


"What does pontificate mean again?" - WannabeDerek


 

Banned


Karma:
Posts: -4
(1478 all sites)
Registered: 3/3/2011
Status: Offline

  posted on 3/3/2010 at 01:10 AM



[Edited on 3/16/2010 by MyInnerEyeMike]

 

____________________
http://www.youtube.com/user/MyInnerEyeMike

http://www.redbubble.com/people/MyInnereyeMike


"What does pontificate mean again?" - WannabeDerek


 

Banned


Karma:
Posts: -4
(1478 all sites)
Registered: 3/3/2011
Status: Offline

  posted on 3/3/2010 at 01:19 AM


[Edited on 3/16/2010 by MyInnerEyeMike]

 

____________________
http://www.youtube.com/user/MyInnerEyeMike

http://www.redbubble.com/people/MyInnereyeMike


"What does pontificate mean again?" - WannabeDerek


 

Zen Peach



Karma:
Posts: 27533
(27822 all sites)
Registered: 2/18/2006
Status: Offline

  posted on 3/3/2010 at 01:57 AM
I need to wear my glasses when I'm reading posts.....I thought you wrote brown manure algae and after that, nothing sounded very good.

Good info about the nutrition in algae though.

 

____________________
Sometimes we can't choose the music life gives us - but we damn sure can choose how we dance!


 

Maximum Peach



Karma:
Posts: 8375
(8376 all sites)
Registered: 3/22/2006
Status: Offline

  posted on 3/3/2010 at 02:27 AM
quote:
I respectfully disagree fujirich. Solar maybe, but f*ck nuclear!!
You might want to explore the difference between fission (what we use today for nuclear weapons and reactors) and fusion (being researched for future applications). Fission splits the atom and produces the radioactive byproducts we worry about with today's reactors. We could actually be much more efficient by re-processing that waste (as the French do). But even though we invented the whole process, we don't use it here in the US.

Fusion is what occurs in stars. Various scientists have projects in place that are closing in on how to re-create that here in a controlled environment. If we ever manage to do it, it will mean unlimited energy forever without the radioactive waste. It is ultimate prize, however we plow more money into unsustainable things like biofuels than fusion. It seems to be a case of ignoring the optimum for tomorrow for what can help buy votes today.

[Edited on 3/3/2010 by Fujirich]

 

____________________
Obamacare: To insure the uninsured, we first make the insured

uninsured and then make them pay more to be insured again,

so the original uninsured can be insured for free.

 

Banned


Karma:
Posts: -4
(1478 all sites)
Registered: 3/3/2011
Status: Offline

  posted on 3/3/2010 at 03:52 AM



[Edited on 3/16/2010 by MyInnerEyeMike]

 

____________________
http://www.youtube.com/user/MyInnerEyeMike

http://www.redbubble.com/people/MyInnereyeMike


"What does pontificate mean again?" - WannabeDerek


 

World Class Peach



Karma:
Posts: 5678
(5711 all sites)
Registered: 6/27/2002
Status: Offline

  posted on 3/3/2010 at 07:47 AM
The thread title reminded me of another pitfall to "biofuels"....


THOSE WHO MAKE THEIR OWN ENVIRONMENT-FRIENDLY GAS CAN AVOID PAIN AT THE PUMP BUT NOT THE TAXES.A price to pay for alternative fuels
BRUCE HENDERSON

Bob Teixeira re-applies a sticker touting an alternative fuel he uses in his car. He plans to fight to change fuel-tax laws that have hit his wallet. Bob Teixeira decided it was time to take a stand against U.S. dependence on foreign oil.

So last fall the Charlotte musician and guitar instructor spent $1,200 to convert his 1981 diesel Mercedes to run on vegetable oil. He bought soybean oil in 5-gallon jugs at Costco, spending about 30 percent more than diesel would cost.

His reward, from a state that heavily promotes alternative fuels: a $1,000 fine last month for not paying motor fuel taxes. He's been told to expect another $1,000 fine from the federal government. And to legally use veggie oil, state officials told him, he would have to first post a $2,500 bond.

Teixeira is one of a growing number of fuel-it-yourselfers -- backyard brewers who recycle restaurant grease or make moonshine for their car tanks. They do it to save money, reduce pollution or thumb their noses at oil sheiks. They're also caught in a web of little-known state laws that can stifle energy independence.

State Sen. Stan Bingham, R-Davidson, is known around Raleigh for his diesel Volkswagen fueled by used soybean oil. The car sports a "Goodbye, OPEC" sign.
"If somebody was going to go to this much trouble to drive around in a car that uses soybean oil, they ought to be exempt" from state taxes, he said.

The N.C. Department of Revenue, which fined Teixeira, has asked legislators to waive the $2,500 bond for small fuel users. The department also told Teixeira, after the Observer asked about his case this week, that it will compromise on his fine. But officials say they'll keep pursuing taxes on all fuels used in highway vehicles. With its 29.9-cent a gallon gas tax, the state collects $1.2 billion each year to pay for road construction.

"With the high cost of fuel right now, the department does recognize that a lot of people are looking for relief," said Reggie Little, assistant director of the motor fuel taxes division. "We're not here to hurt the small guy, we're just trying to make sure that the playing field is level."

Use promoted, little regulation

State policies firmly endorse alternative fuels. In 2005 legislators directed state agencies to replace 20 percent of their annual petroleum use with alternatives by 2010. About 6,000 of the state's 8,500 vehicles are equipped to use ethanol. The state fleet also includes about 135 gas-electric hybrids.

Few states, however, are prepared to regulate the new fuels, says the National VegOil Board, which promotes vegetable oil fuel. "State offices do not have the forms to appropriately and fairly deal with VegOil, nor the staff to enforce the non-existent forms," said director Cynthia Shelton. "So either they tell people inquiring about compliance to get lost, or they make them jump through a bunch of arbitrary hoops."

Outraged Illinois legislators this spring quickly waived that state's $2,500 bond requirement when an elderly man was nabbed for using waste vegetable oil.

In the mountain district of state Sen. John Snow, D-Cherokee, home-brewed ethanol was once known as moonshine. But a couple of constituents who made it for fuel have been fined for the same tax violation that got Teixeira in trouble. Snow has introduced several bills to promote biodiesel, which under state law includes vegetable oil. "One of the biggest problems in the state is a real lack of information for people who want to use alternative fuels," said Snow's research assistant, Jonathan Ducote. "It's just now appearing on (regulators') radar."

Done in by bumper sticker

Teixeira's story began near Lowe's Motor Speedway on May 14. As recreational vehicles streamed in for race week, revenue investigators were checking fuel tanks of diesel RVs for illegal fuel. The investigators quickly spotted Teixeira's passing bumper sticker: "Powered by 100% vegetable oil."

"It was like some twist of fate that put me there," he said. "It was like I was asking for them to stop me."

Teixeira says revenue officials are just doing their jobs. But he thinks it's unfair that he was lumped with people who purposely try to avoid fuel taxes.
"Individuals who are trying to do the right thing environmentally cannot and should not continue to take this kind of financial hit," he wrote Gov. Mike Easley. Teixeira says he'll pay the state fine and apply for a state fuel license. But pumping regular diesel again "broke my heart." "I'm ready to get myself legal," he said, "and start using vegetable oil again."

 

____________________
Mecca Delendum Est

Support International TOURISM. Vsit MATAMOROS, Mexico

Obama thinks the American people are stupid

When leftist radicalism takes over America it.....

How does polygamous marriage threaten gay marriage?

 
<<  1    2  >>  


Powered by XForum 1.81.1 by Trollix Software


Privacy | Terms of Service
The ALLMAN BROTHERS BAND name, The ALLMAN BROTHERS name, likenesses, logos, mushroom design and peach truck are all registered trademarks of THE ABB MERCHANDISING CO., INC. whose rights are specifically reserved. Any artwork, visual, or audio representations used on this web site CONTAINING ANY REGISTERED TRADEMARKS are under license from The ABB MERCHANDISING CO., INC. A REVOCABLE, GRATIS LICENSE IS GRANTED TO ALL REGISTERED PEACH CORP MEMBERS FOR The DOWNLOADING OF ONE COPY FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY. ANY DISTRIBUTION OR REPRODUCTION OF THE TRADEMARKS CONTAINED HEREIN ARE PROHIBITED AND ARE SPECIFICALLY RESERVED BY THE ABB MERCHANDISING CO.,INC.
site by Hittin' the Web Group with www.experiencewasabi3d.com